Generality on Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea or “hot piss” is sexually transmitted disease (STD) or a venereal infection caused by a bacterium called “Neisseria gonorrhoeae”. It is a sexually transmitted infection that causes burns and / or yellow discharge from the penis, vagina or anus. This infection is transmitted during sexual, oral, vaginal or anal intercourse. Currently, there are an estimated 62 million new cases of gonococcal infections worldwide each year. Asymptomatic carriers are estimated at 80% in women and 10% in men. These carriers are untreated and a permanent source of contamination.

  • The gonococcus or Neisseria gonorrhoeae

The gonococcus was first observed by Neisser in 1879 in urethral pus and in 1882 Leistikov and Loeffler performed the first culture on coagulated serum. It is the agent of blennoragie known since the highest antiquity since the first description was made in 2637 BC. BC by the Chinese emperor Huang Ti. Long regarded as a clinical form of syphilis (Hunter), gonorrhea was individualized by Ricord in 1830. Long considered the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD), gonorrhea has given way to venereal Chiamydia trachomatis infections. However, gonococcal infections pose a public health problem that is complicated by the steady increase in their resistance to antibiotics.

  1. Habitat and epidemiology

It is a strict parasite of the man, host of the mucous membranes of the genital tract of the man and the woman and whose transmission is almost exclusively sexual. The epidemiological problem is simple in appearance:

– Man is the only reservoir of germs;

– The gonococcus is sensitive to antibiotics.

From 1955 to the early 1980s, there was a recrudescence of gonorrhea with increased gonococcal resistance. Since then, the incidence of gonorrhea has fallen sharply as a result of better prevention linked to the AIDS epidemic.

In one city, the prevalence of infection is high in low-socio-economic neighborhoods, where gonorrhea is endemic. From this “core” the infection spreads to other parts of the city where the observed cases are sporadic and the prevalence is low. Gonorrhea are favored by urbanization, travel (tourism, business trips), promiscuity, seasons (summer)

  1. Situation in USA

According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), in the United States, Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease and is a major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in the United States. PID can lead to serious outcomes in women, such as tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In addition, epidemiologic and biologic studies provide evidence that gonococcal infections facilitate the transmission of HIV infection. In 2016, a total of 468,514 cases were reported for a rate of 145.8 gonorrhea cases per 100,000 populations. In 2016, a total of 468,514 cases of gonorrhea were reported in the United States, yielding a rate of 145.8 cases per 100,000 populations. During 2015-2016, the rate of reported gonorrhea cases increased 18.5%, and increased 48.6% since the historic low in 2009. If the disease is not treated quickly, it will cause complications. The rate of reported gonorrhea cases among males was higher than the rate among females. The prevalence is high among women aged 15 and 24 years. In men, from 20 to 29 years.